  ᠰᠦᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ          30
     
   2019-06-20 16:47
   2020-04-14 15:25
   63635
   37

ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠬᠠᠢ

ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠬᠠᠢ
        5213        0         0 
2019-06-24 15:58    
ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨᠯᠠᠠᠭᠳᠤ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠤᠰᠤᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠠᠭᠲᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠸᠦ᠋ᠷᠤᠫᠠ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠢᠪ ‍ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠤᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠰᠦᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠡᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠡᠨ ‍ᠢᠶ᠋ᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠤ ᠴᠦ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠳᠤᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠃ ᠦᠨᠤᠳᠤᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮᠳᠤ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠤᠰᠤᠲᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠤᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠳᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠂ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠨᠤᠳᠤᠭ ‍ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠤᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠂ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯᠳᠤ ᠶᠤᠰᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠵᠤᠶᠢᠯᠡᠰ ‍ᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠭᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠳᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠦᠴᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠬᠦᠭᠡᠰᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠰᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭ ‍ᠢ ᠡᠨᠳᠠ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦᠯᠤᠨ ᠂ ᠨᠦᠬᠦᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠰᠢᠬᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠵᠤᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠡᠨ ‍ᠢ ᠳᠤᠯᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠂ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠳᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠᠤ ᠃ 1. ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠰᠦᠨᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ︽ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ︾ ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠨ ‍ᠢ ︽ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤᠪᠴᠢᠶᠡᠨ ︾ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠦᠬᠦᠳ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠴᠠᠢ ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤᠪᠴᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠵᠦᠪ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠃ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠦ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠤᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠡ ᠃ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠰ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠰᠤᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠵᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠠ ︽ ᠰᠤᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ︵ ᠰᠤᠨᠢᠭᠤᠳ ︶ ︾ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤᠪᠴᠢᠶᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠮᠤᠢ ᠃ 2. ︽ ᠰᠢᠦ᠋ᠠᠭᠨᠤ ︾ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠭᠠᠨ ︽ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ ︾ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠦ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠃ ︽ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠤᠬᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠠᠭᠭᠤᠢ ︾ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠃ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠢᠠᠭᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠤᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠭᠡᠷ ︽ ᠡᠾᠦ᠋ᠠᠭᠨᠤ  ᠰᠢᠦ᠋ᠠᠭᠨᠤ ︾ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠤᠷᠭᠡᠭᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠂ ᠵᠸᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠂ ᠨᠡᠠᠭ᠌ ᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠶᠠᠨ ︵秦赵燕) ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠭᠢᠯᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠳᠤᠮᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠤᠰᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠃ ᠦᠨᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠪᠤᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠵᠤ ︽ ᠡᠾᠦ᠋ᠠᠭᠨᠤ ︾ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ︽ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ︾ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠃ ᠤᠳᠤ ︽ ᠡᠾᠦ᠋ᠠᠭᠨᠤ ︾ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ︽ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ ︾ ᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠃ 3. ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠸᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠄ ᠴᠢᠠᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠢ  ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠤᠯ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ  ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠡᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ︵ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ︶ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠢᠯᠡᠵᠤ ︽ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠳ ︾ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠮᠡᠮᠤᠢ ᠃ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠤᠳᠤ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠨ ︵ ᠬᠦᠭᠡᠴᠢᠲᠠᠢ ︶ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠢᠯᠡᠨ ︽ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ︾ ᠭᠡᠮᠡᠮᠤᠢ ᠃ ᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠷᠤᠯ ︵ ᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ︶ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠢᠯᠡᠨ ︽ ᠦᠵᠤᠮᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ︾ ᠭᠡᠮᠡᠮᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠡᠡᠭ ᠴᠦ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠃ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠢᠯᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠷ ᠂ ᠴᠢᠠᠭᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ‍ᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠦᠷᠯᠤᠭᠡ ᠦᠳᠡᠰᠢ ᠡᠳᠤᠷ ᠰᠦᠨᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠳᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤᠪᠴᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠨᠤᠮ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠄ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠡᠭᠢᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠴᠢᠠᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠤᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠡ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ‍ᠢ ᠨᠤᠳᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠭ᠋ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠃ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠢᠯᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠷ ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠳᠠᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠢ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠮᠤᠢ ᠃ 4. ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠄ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠴᠢᠡᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠬᠠᠠᠭᠭᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠬᠦᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠂ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠬᠦᠤ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠯᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠶᠢᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠡᠳᠴᠠᠢ ᠃ 5. ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠤᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠬᠠᠠᠭᠭᠠᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ︽ ᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠢ ᠂ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠪᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ ︾ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠨᠡᠬᠦᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ‍ᠢ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠤᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠭᠰᠢᠳ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠱᠠᠠᠭᠳᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠳᠤᠭᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠡᠪᠤᠭᠡᠨ ︽ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠤ᠋ ︾ ︵ ᠪᠠᠳᠤᠸᠠᠴᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠤ ︖ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠷᠲᠠᠵᠢ ︶ 1965 ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠳᠠ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ ᠃ 6. ᠬᠠᠯᠬᠠᠴᠤᠳ ‍ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ︵ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠯ1691 ᠤᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠳᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠤᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠠᠢ ︶ ᠦᠵᠤᠮᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠴᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠨᠤᠡᠭ ᠳᠤᠷᠵᠢ1637 ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦᠰᠢᠶᠡᠲᠤ1637 ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠷᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠷ ᠵᠢᠨᠤᠡᠭ1639 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠰ ᠴᠢᠡᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠦᠭᠬᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠂ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠢᠯᠠᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ ᠃ 7. ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠡᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠂ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠳ ‍ᠢ ᠳᠠᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠬᠤᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠯᠤᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠦᠭᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠱᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠤᠳᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ  ᠬᠦᠰᠠᠢ ︵ ᠴᠢᠠᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ ︶ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠳᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ︵1642 ᠤᠨ ︶ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠦᠷᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠡᠷᠬᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠭᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ ᠃ ᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠤ  ᠦᠶᠡᠯᠡᠳ ᠲᠠᠠᠭᠭᠢᠰ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠨ ‍ᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠳᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ︵ 1641 ︶ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠦᠷᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠵᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠭᠴᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠤᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠃ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯᠴᠤᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠬᠦᠮᠳᠡᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠤᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠡᠪᠳᠡᠯᠡᠵᠤ ᠳᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠵᠠᠭᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠦᠨᠤᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠃ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠵᠠᠠᠭᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠡᠸᠠᠨᠷᠠᠪᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠡᠪᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠤᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠡᠭᠢᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠪᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠪᠠᠳᠤ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠦᠭᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠳᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠃ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠳᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠤ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ  ᠴᠤᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠨᠠᠷ ᠂ ᠬᠤᠠᠭᠬᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠂ ᠠᠷᠤᠯᠠᠳ ᠂ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠂ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠰ ᠂ ᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭᠢᠰ  ᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠪᠤᠭᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠳᠤᠪᠴᠡᠶᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠃ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠤᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠯᠠ ᠤᠪᠤᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠂ ᠤᠭ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠦ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠤ ᠤᠪᠤᠭ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠ ᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠡᠭᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ︽ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ︾ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠤᠳᠤᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠠ ︵1206 1642 ︶ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦᠦ ᠵᠢᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ ᠃ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ  ᠰᠦᠰᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠨ ᠸᠠᠭᠭ᠌ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠡᠭᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠴᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠡᠮᠡᠴᠤᠭᠳᠤᠠᠭᠷᠤᠪ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ︵1642 1945 ︶ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ ᠃ 1945 ᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠬᠤᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠤᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠪᠭᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠨᠤᠳᠤᠭ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠤᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠠᠢ ᠃ ᠲᠡᠤᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠳᠤᠶᠢᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠵᠤᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ︽ ᠭᠠᠠᠭᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ︾ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠄ ︽ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠠᠭ᠌ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠦᠭᠡᠴᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠂ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠂ ᠴᠡᠷᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠃ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠤ ᠳᠠᠠᠭᠭᠢᠰ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠮᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠸᠠᠬᠦᠸᠠᠨᠰᠦ᠋ᠷᠤᠡᠭ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠂ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠤ ᠳᠡᠠᠭᠭᠡᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠶᠢᠵᠡᠠᠭ᠌ ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠮᠪᠠ ᠳᠦᠷᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠤᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠡᠠᠭ᠌ ᠵᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠳᠠᠢ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠡᠠᠭ᠌ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠰᠢ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠡᠠᠭ᠌ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠂ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠨᠤᠶᠠᠳ ᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ ︾ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠢ ᠂ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠂ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠢ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠤᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠳᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠂ ᠭᠢᠯᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠷ ᠴᠤᠬᠤᠮ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠳᠦᠷᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ︖ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠠᠶᠤᠰᠢ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠡᠠᠭ᠌ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ 23 ᠂ 24 ᠂ 25 ᠂ 26 ᠂ 27 ᠂ 28 ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠤᠬᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠭᠠᠨᠤᠯᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠸ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠴᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠰᠤᠳᠤᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠭᠡᠢ ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠢᠵᠡᠭᠤᠷᠲᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠤ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠡᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠢᠰ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠤᠮᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠤᠯᠠ ᠳᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠭ ‍ᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠠᠭᠵᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ ᠃ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠰᠦᠤᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ‍ᠢ ᠰᠦᠷᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠷ ᠢᠨᠤᠡᠭ ᠂ ᠰᠦᠰᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠨ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠲᠠᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠪᠡ ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠡᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯᠴᠤᠳ ‍ᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠤᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠤᠰᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠮ ᠢᠷᠤ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠡᠭᠭᠢᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠴᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠳᠡᠮᠡᠴᠤᠭᠳᠤᠠᠭᠷᠤᠪ ᠴᠤᠬᠤᠮ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ︖ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠡᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠮᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠰᠤᠶᠢᠷᠡᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠨᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠤ ᠂ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠂ ᠸᠠᠠᠭ᠌ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠮᠦᠨ ᠴᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠨᠦᠯᠤᠭᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠤᠣ ︖ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠤᠪᠤᠭᠲᠠᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠳᠦᠯᠤᠭᠡ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠂ ᠮᠤᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠤᠰᠤᠲᠡᠨ ‍ᠤ ᠲᠡᠤᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠃ ︵ ᠠᠪᠤ᠋ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠮᠢᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ︶ ᠵᠤᠭᠢᠶᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠠᠯᠠᠩᠲᠦ  ︿ 1928 1988 ﹀ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠠᠠᠤᠷᠬᠢᠯ ᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠠ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠂ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠵᠡᠪ ᠂ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠪᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨᠪᠤᠯᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠲᠡᠭ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ ᠃ ᠨᠢᠯᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤ᠋ ᠡᠵᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠮ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠬᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠵᠦᠬᠦᠷ ᠲᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠪᠠ ᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠠᠪᠤ᠋ ᠡᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠦᠰᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠤᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠵᠠᠮᠰᠦ ᠮᠠᠮᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠ ᠃ 1941 ᠣᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠠᠸᠴᠢᠷ ᠂ ᠭᠠᠩᠰᠦ᠋ᠬᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠦ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠰᠡᠬᠦᠯᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠠᠨᠲᠤᠬᠤ ᠂ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠳᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠠ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠮᠲᠡᠲᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠡ ᠃ 1945 ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠤᠷᠢᠳ ᠬᠤᠵᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯ ᠂ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠯᠾᠮᠤᠵᠠᠪ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠂ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ 8 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠤᠯᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠤᠶᠢᠵᠢᠯᠵᠡᠪ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠤᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠨᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠺᠤᠮᠢᠰᠰᠡᠷ ᠲᠣ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠴᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠂ 1946 ᠣᠨ ᠦᠪᠤᠷ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠦᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠡ ᠵᠡᠰᠡᠬᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠪᠡᠲᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠷᠢᠭ᠌ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠡᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠ ᠃ 1948 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠨᠢ ᠦᠯᠵᠡᠶᠢᠸᠴᠢᠷ ᠭᠸᠨ᠋ᠸᠷᠡᠯ ᠂ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠴᠤᠭᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠮᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠂ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠸᠠᠩ ᠭᠡᠨᠲᠦᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠮ ‍ᠢ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠨᠵᠢᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ︽ ᠰᠡᠩ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠢ ︾ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠴᠤᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠭᠤᠮᠢᠨᠲᠠᠩ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡ ᠃ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠲᠣ ᠲᠤᠮᠢᠯᠠᠭᠲᠠᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯᠲᠦ ᠲᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ‍ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠠ ᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠂ ᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠡᠷ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠠ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠷᠤᠨᠲᠦ 52 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠬᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠭᠠᠲᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠲ᠋ᠷᠢᠶᠡᠲ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ︿ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠭᠠᠲᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ﹀ ᠲᠠᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠰᠦᠨᠢᠳ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠣ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯᠲᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠪᠠ ᠃ 1953 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠤᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠢᠡᠬᠤᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠷᠤᠨᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠢ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠤᠯ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠭᠠᠲᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠲ᠋ᠷᠢᠶᠡᠲ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠲᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠰ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠦ ᠂ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶᠡᠲᠡᠡ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶᠡᠴᠢᠳ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠯᠦᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ︵ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ︶ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠪᠤᠷ ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠢ ᠶᠤᠸᠡᠡ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠭᠠᠲᠦ ᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠲ᠋ᠷᠢᠶᠡᠲ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶᠡᠲᠡᠡ ᠤ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠡᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠤᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠡᠡ ᠮᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠡ ᠭᠠᠪᠢᠶᠡᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠲᠡᠭ ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠯᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠰᠡᠡ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ ᠃ ​

3        1       

          

        
           
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